this for escaping w3 validation warning

Phenotype Variability => Phenotype Value
APSIM for sorghum and pearl millet

Phenotype Variability => Phenotype Value

Literature is flooded with reports on plant phenotypes which could potentially enhance plant adaptation to limited-water-supply environments. However, very few of these phenotypes are being practically used as selection criteria in crop improvement programmes. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is that 1) the phenotype doesn’t improve the crop production significantly 2) the phenotype contributes to crop production in certain types of environments but may have negative production trade-offs in other environments (i.e. generally, we cannot expect one phenotypic trait to enhance the plant production across diverse environments). To overcome these hurdles one has to build the capacity to probabilistically predict the breeding value of the phenotype in a particular environment. For this purpose, we use the crop modelling tools (APSIM) whose sorghum & pearl millet modules have been upgraded in order to mechanistically capture important water stress adaptive processes (e.g. canopy development, tilling, transpiration responses to vapor pressure deficit). Such a tool is highly relevant to estimate the breeding value [$ ha-1] of such phenotypic traits and therefore justify any further efforts for use of these phenotypes as a selection criteria in breeding programs for specific environments.

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